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喷施农药对银耳生长的影响及膳食暴露风险评估
姚清华1, 颜孙安1, 叶建洪2, 黄敏敏1, 陈美珍1, 林虬1
1.农业农村部农产品质量安全风险评估实验室(福州), 福建省农产品质量安全重点实验室, 福建省农业科学院农业质量标准与检测技术研究所, 福州 350003;2.古田建宏农业开发有限公司, 福建 宁德 352200
摘要:  为制订银耳(Tremella fuciformis)栽培中农药合理使用的建议,以我国银耳主栽菌株Tr01为对象,研究8组常用农药对其生长的影响,采用食品安全指数法评估长期膳食银耳导致的农药残留慢性暴露健康风险。结果表明,除咪鲜胺乳油和哒螨灵、啶虫脒微乳剂的部分处理外,其余6组农药对银耳子实体生长并无显著影响。银耳中的农药残留水平与农药种类及喷施模式密切相关,当农药残留水平低于GB 2763-2019标准中蔬菜的农药最大残留限量时,成人和儿童长期膳食银耳的慢性健康风险商(cHQ)分别为0.001~0.174和0.002~0.191,风险水平可接受。结合我国农药使用现状,建议银耳栽培中应禁用乙酰甲胺磷、毒死蜱、克百威,减少阿维菌素、咪鲜胺、异丙威的使用频率,在合适的安全间隔期下可以使用联苯菊酯、啶虫脒、吡虫啉、哒螨灵。
关键词:  银耳  农药  残留  风险评估
DOI:10.11926/jtsb.4251
分类号:
基金项目:国家农产品质量安全风险评估项目(GJFP2019014);福建省属公益类科研院所基本科研专项(2018R1018-7);福建省农业科学院创新团队项目(STIT2017-1-12)资助
Effects of Pesticide on Tremella fuciformis Berk Growth and Risk Assessment of Dietary Exposure
YAO Qing-hua1, YAN Sun-an1, YE Jian-hong2, HUANG Min-min1, CHEN Mei-zhen1, LIN Qiu1
1.Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs Laboratory of Quality & Safety Risk Assessment for Agro-products(Fuzhou), Fujian Key Laboratory of Quality and Safety for Agro-products, Institute of Quality Standards and Testing Technology for Agro-products, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003, China;2.Gutian Jianhong Agricultural Development Co., Ltd., Ningde 352200, Fujian, China
Abstract:  To provide the suggestion for pesticide application in snow fungus (Tremella fuciformis) cultivation, eight pesticides were used under spraying mode in different periods. The effects of pesticides on snow fungus strain Tr01 growth and health risk assessment of dietary exposure were studied. The results showed that all pesticides except prochloraz cream and pyridaben/acetamiprid microemulsion had not significant effects on growth of snow fungus. The level of pesticides residue was closely related to the type of pesticide and spraying mode. While the pesticide residue were below the corresponding MRL adopted from GB 2763-2019, the cHQ (chronic hazard quotient) of long-term dietary exposure for general population and young child ranged from 0.001 to 0.174 and 0.002 to 0.191, respectively. It indicated that the risk was acceptable. Based on the risk assessment, it was recommended for snow fungus cultivation that acephate, chlorpyrifos, and carbofuran should be banned, the use frequency of abamectin, prochloraz, and isoprocarb should be gradually reduced, and bifenthrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and pyridaben could be used with the appropriate pre-harvest interval. These might be useful for designing good agricultural practices (GAP) and registering pesticide for snow fungus cultivation.
Key words:  Tremella fuciformis  Pesticide  Residue  Risk assessment

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