To compare appearance traits, nutrients and aroma characteristics of fruits of different Psidium guajava cultivars, the appearance and nutritional qualities of five guava cultivars ('Hongbaoshi', 'Fenhongmi', 'Xigua', 'Shuimi', local cultivar) were measured by national standard method, and the aroma components were determined by head space-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) technology. The results showed that there were significant differences in fruit appearance and nutrients among five cultivars. For 'Shuimi', the fruit shape index was the lowest with oblate fruit and the least seeds; the contents of sugars (total sugar, reducing sugar, sucrose, and etc.), sugar acid ratio, and total phenol were the highest; and the contents of fructose, VC and total flavonoids ranked in second; while the contents of fat, crude fiber, ash and total acid were the lowest. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that 'Shuimi' had the highest comprehensive score, so the edible quality was the best, Hexanal and caryophyllene were the characteristic aroma components of red pulp cultivars, and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone was the characteristic aroma component of white pulp cultivars.