2. 山东省莘县农业局, 山东 莘县 252400
2. Shenxian Agricultural Bureau, Shenxian 252400, Shandong, China
The genus Astrochapsa Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch was divided from the genus Chapsa A. Massal in 2012 following a phylogenetic analysis. Compared to Chapsa s. str., the genus Astrochapsa is characterized by the more frequently dense cortex, recurved apothecial margin, and exclusively non- distoseptate and non-amyloid ascospores. Eighteen species, including A. pseudophlyctis and A. zahlbruck- neri described as Chapsa s. lat. species from 1923 to 2012, were introduced into Astrochapsa. Subsequently, eleven new species such as A. albella Sipman, A. elongata Poengs. & Lumbsch and A. martinicensis Ertz & Borgato, were added to this genus[2-10]. A total of 29 species are currently accepted in the genus worldwide[8-10].
Some smaller related genera have also been reported from China in recent years, such as Carbacan- thographis Staiger & Kalb[11-12], Chapsa A. Massal., Fissurina Fée, Myriotrema Fée, and Reimnitzia Kalb. Up to now, only one species of Astrochapsa, A. mirabilis (Zahlbr.) Lücking & S. Joshi (=Phaeo- graphina mirabilis Zahlbr.), has been known from Fujian in China. During our ongoing studies on Thelotremataceae in China, another two species of Astrochapsa were found and reported here.1 Materials and methods
Specimens examined in this study are deposited in the Herbarium of Crytopams, Kunming Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica-Lichenes (KUN-L) and the Fungarium of the College of Life Sciences, Liaocheng University (LCUF). The morphology and anatomy were observed using a stereomicroscope OLYMPUS SZX16 and light microscopes OLYMPUS BX53. Sections of thalli and ascomata were mounted in water, in which K (a 10% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide), C (a saturated solution of aqueous sodium hypochlorite) and I (Lugol's iodine) test were taken. The lichen substances were detected using thin-layer chromatography (TLC)[18-20].2 Results
Two species of Astrochapsa in family Thelotre- mataceae (lichenized Ascomycota: Ostropales) are described as new to China here. The specimens was taken from southern China.
Astrochapsa Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch, PLoS ONE 7(12): e51392, 8 (2012)
Type species:Astrochapsa astroidea (Berk. & Broome) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch, PLoS ONE 7(12): e51392, 8 (2012)
Thallus crustose with dense cortex; apothecia erumpent, disc exposed, rounded to irregular in out- line with lobulate to usually recurved margin; exci- pulum usually brown; ascospores septate to muriform, fusiform-ellipsoid to oblong-cylindrical, with slightly thickened septa and subdistoseptate, hyaline to rarely brown, non-amyloid ascospores; the chemistry of Astrochapsa is frequently stictic acid group substances or no substances.
Astrochapsa pseudophlyctis(Nyl.) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch, PLoS ONE 7 (12): e51392, 9 (2012). (Fig. 1: A-D)
≡ Graphis pseudophlyctis Nyl., in Hue, Nouv. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat., Paris, 3 sér. 3: 163 (1891).
≡ Graphina pseudophlyctis (Nyl.) Zahlbr., Denk- schr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 83: 110 (1909)
≡ Chapsa pseudophlyctis (Nyl.) Frisch, Biblthca Lichenol. 92: 120 (2006).
Thallus crustose, yellow or brown, continuous, slight uneven, slightly glossy; upper surface compact or slightly mealy. Apothecia erumpent or immersed, angular rounded to irregular in outline, 0.25-0.35 mm in diam, margin raised but often eroded, jagged to usually lobed; disc brownish, exposed, usually pruinose; proper margin dark brown, fissured and recurved, striated. Excipulum absent, not carbonized, 7-10 μm thick; epithecium dark brown, 12-20 μm thick; hymenium clear, limpid, 100-125 μm high; asci clavate to fusiform, 65-110 μm×18-30 μm; asco- spores 2-6/ascus, fusiform, hyaline, muriform, 10- 14×4-6 loculate, thick-walled, halonate, 30-75 μm× 10-25 μm, I-; paraphyses simple, straight, unbranched, about 30 μm in length, tips expanded and adspersed with brownish granules.
Chemistry: K-, C- and P-; no lichen componds detected by TLC.
Substrate: On rock.
Specimens examined: CHINA. Yunnan, Xinping County, Mt. Mopanshan, alt. 2 420 m, 20 Dec. 2008, L.S. Wang 08-29821 (KUN-L).
Remarks: The species is characterized by its pale-olive thallus lacking secondary compounds, pale brown apothecial disc, distinctly white pruinose, round to angular apothecia with fissured and recurved margins, and hyaline muriform ascospores. It is similar to Chapsa indica A. Massal. and C. leprocarpa (Nyl.) A. Frisch in having ecorticate brownish to olive-grey thallus, rounded to angular apothecia and pruinose disc, but C. indica can be distinguished by the transversely septate ascospores, and C. leprocarpa consistently bearing a single larger ascospore in the asci[13, 22]. The substrate of A. pseudophlyctis was bark as previously reported[21-22], but the specimen examined in this study was collected on the rock. The species is actually more like Pseudochapsa in disc and asco-spores, and it has ever been listed as P. pseudophly-ctis by Papong et al. in the FIELD GUIDES (https://fieldguides.fieldmuseum.org/guides/guide/545, 2013), we also suggest that this species should be introduced into the genus Pseudochapsa and as synonym as P. pseudophlyctis in the future based on the weakly recurved margin of apothecia and fusiform ascospores with thickened septa and rounded lumina. Because of the lack of its molecular data, let's do this name under genus Chapsa for the moment.
Astrochapsa zahlbruckneri(Redinger) Parnmen, Lücking & Lumbsch, PLoS ONE 7(12): e51392, 9 (2012). (Fig. 1: E-H)
≡ Phaeographina zahlbruckneri Redinger, Ark. Bot. 26A (1): 93 (1934).
≡ Chapsa zahlbruckneri (Redinger) Frisch, Biblioth. Lichenol. 92: 123 (2006).
Thallus corticolous, crustose, usually grey-olive to brownish-olive, continuous; upper surface compact and slightly uneven to verrucose, weakly splitting, a thin white medullary layer usually present. Apothecia dispersed, angular-rounded to elongate, sometimes irregular in outline, simple or sometimes branched, 0.8-2.1 mm×0.45-0.65 mm; margin thick, strongly raised, jagged to typically lobed, upright to recurved, with a compact, white inner surface. Disc partly exposed with slightly lobulate margin, white pruinose. Epithecium dark brown, 35-50 μm thick, carbonized at both ends and bottom; hymenium 130-160 μm high, limpid, non-amyloid; asci clavate, colorless, 120- 150 μm×25-35 μm; ascospores 1-2/ascus, hyaline or slightly brownish, densely muriform, 55-90 μm× 22-28 μm, with rounded ends and a narrow halo, I-; para- physes parallel, straight, simple to sparingly branched in the upper half, tops slightly thickened.
Chemistry: K+ yellow, C-, P+ orange; containing stictic acid by TLC.
Substrate: On bark.
Distribution: Africa (Cameroon); Southern America (Brazil); Asia (Thailand). New to China.
Specimens examined: CHINA. Hainan, Chang- jiang County, Bawangling National Reserve, alt. 490 m, 8 Dec. 2019, Y. H. Ju HN19100 (LCUF).
Remarks: The species is characterized by its grey-olive to brownish-olive thallus, clear hymenium, usually white pruinose apothecial disc, 1-2(-4)- spored asci, hyaline ascospores in various size (usually 62-95 μm×25-27 μm), and presence of stictic acid. It is similar to A. mastersonii in thallus, hymenium and ascomata, but the latter species has longer and much narrower ascospores (90-130 μm×17-25 μm).
Acknowledgments We are grateful to Prof. Li-song Wang (Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science) for providing the lichen materials.
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